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Hitachi America, Ltd.

Hitachi

Hitachi America, Ltd., Research & Development

SULEV Device

Summary

SULEV Device

"CSD (Combustion Stabilizing Device)" is being developed to meet SULEV/ULEV (Super-Ultra Low Emission Vehicle/Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) emission standards on small to large displacement internal combustion engines. To reduce automotive emissions to SULEV standards it is necessary to start the engine in a stoichiometric, or lean, state (or go to a stoichiometric state quickly after start.) In order to achieve stoichiometric cold starts, vaporized fuel is needed, which is supplied by the CSD.

Benefits

  • Low cost solution
  • Low HC emissions during cold start
  • Replaces air pump, swirl control valve, heavily loaded catalyst
  • Quick catalyst light-off

Emission Standards

Emission Standards

Telematics and Navigation

Telematics

Telematics

Hitachi is a member of the AMI-C consortium for vehicular telematics, which includes the concepts of entertainment, information, and communication both to and from a remote server.

The technology is to provide the following services:

  • Map delivery via wireless link and display in vehicle
  • Route search and guidance
  • Point of interest search
  • Voice command and guidance
  • Hands-free phone with help and SOS features
  • E-mail/internet access
  • News, weather, and events delivery
  • Traffic information
  • Operator assistance and text-to-speech capabilities

Navigation

HAL-R&D/APL is involved in many navigation projects that include use of global positioning systems, inertial navigation, and magnetic navigation. There is currently a need to improve the performance of GPS navigation by relying on other sensing technology such as magneto-resistive sensing. By relying on multi-sensing technology and on advanced signal processing algorithms, we will be able to provide a system robust to individual sensing weakness such as:

GPS

  • Enclosed areas
  • No satelites available
  • Signal reflection from tall buildings or structures

Magnetic sensing

  • Magnetic disturbances (stationary and mobile)
  • Influence of surrounding environment
  • Need to compensate for declination

Unifying Technologies

Unifying Technologies

Hitachi is bringing together these navigation and telematics technologies, and designing systems which can take them to the next level. Users will be able to plan a route at their PC or in their PDA, then follow it in their car. With our multiple sensing devices, the readings will be more accurate than with traditional single-sensor devices.

Mechatronics

Mechatronics

HAL-R&D is involved in the now well-known area of Mechatronics. Mechatronics is used in systems where there is the need for integration between two or more of the following: microcontrollers, control systems, electrical systems, magnetic systems, mechanical systems and thermal systems.

Mechatronics is interdisciplinary and brings together areas of technology involving sensors and measurement systems, drive and actuation systems, analysis of system behavior, control system implementation, and microcontroller integration.

We have designed many virtual components using state of the art modeling tools, including SABERTM from Synopsys and Matlab/SimulinkTM from The Mathworks. In these programs, the virtual model must duplicate the behavior of an actual part in multi-domains such as electrical, mechanical and thermal.

Mechatronics

Virtual modeling includes the creation of sensors, such as the airflow sensor that is used to measure the intake air into an engine manifold or the hydrogen flow sensor that measures the amount of hydrogen being used by a fuel cell. Actuator modeling has been performed on the electronic throttle bodies that control the amount of air intake into an engine. In addition, a combination of sensors, actuators and control strategies are used to perform a behavioral analysis. Some of the components we have modeled or are currently modeling are Air Flow Sensors, Hydrogen Flow Sensors, Electronic Throttle Controls, Throttle Position Sensors, DC motors, and alternators.

Zero-Hand Coding

Zero-Hand Coding

As the demand for more complex system development and the requirement for improvement in software productivity increases, the need for graphical programming and Zero-Hand Coding for the automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development, which consists of the application modules. It must also be extended to the microcontroller platform, which includes the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is used to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for the development of systems, the reduction of the development cycle and the bridging of gaps between control and software engineers. This also serves to reduce time, effort and cost of the production software.

Here at HAL-R&D, we have a novel approach to programming electronic control units that can include engine controllers, transmission controllers, and other types of sub-controllers. Hitachi microcontrollers such as the SH2 and H8S have a well-established array of software tool chains.

Hardware

Hardware

We have been using Hitachi and other microcontrollers. HAL-R&D must be flexible enough to use other suppliers of microcontrollers in accordance with the market/customer requirements.

SH2: Is a 32-bit RISC processor with 512kB Flash memory. It has 32 10-bit A/D channels and many special timing functions that could generate injection and ignition pulse width, and can also act as a timer that could detect a missing tooth in an engine crankshaft. A dual CAN port is available.

H8S: Is a 16-bit processor with 256kB Flash memory. It has 32 10-bit A/D channels. Many timer channels and a CAN communication port are also available.

Software

Software

Model Based Design
Many third party companies provide tools that can automatically convert a high level model based design into C-code, which can be embedded on the target microcontroller. Some of the automatic code generators are TargetLinkTM from dSpace and Ascet-SDTM from ETAS.

Real Time Operating System
Complex control strategies need to be handled by a multi-tasking real time OS. OSEK compliance is a new requirement for many automotive applications. Many OS are available commercially, such as ErcosekTM from ETAS, RTATM from LiveDevices and others. These are graphical tools that will provide the system files necessary for the project.

Device Drive Configurator
One of the benefits of using a Hitachi microcontroller is the availability of a graphical based device driver configurator. MakeAppTM, from IAR, will provide the capability to configure the I/O register for a specific application. Source code is eventually generated and embedded into the model based control design. This approach will save the tedious manual programming of the microcontroller peripherals.

Rest of the Tool Chain
In addition to all of this, the Hitachi tool chain provides the HEW (Hitachi Embedded Workshop), compiler and HDI (Hitachi Debugging Interface). These tools will take the source code files generated by the other tools, compile them, provide an executable file and download it to the target processor.

The usage of these graphical software tools will shorten development time and facilitate the implementation of embedded controllers (engine, powertrain, transmission, etc.) A control engineer can quickly evaluate his/her own algorithm easily on a target microprocessor. Use of these tools will promote easier maintenance and traceability using the algorithms hierarchical structure. In fact, we created a multi-faceted solution; first, the code can be used for rapid prototyping, and second, the generated code is target optimized so it can be used directly on the target embedded controller.

Published Papers

  • Zero Hand Coding Approach for Controller Development
    George Saikalis, Shigeru Oho, and Steffen Zunft
    SAE Paper #2002-01-0142
  • Development of a Hydrogen Flow Sensor
    George Saikalis and Shigeru Oho SAE Paper #2001-01-0142
  • Modeling of Advanced Control Strategies for Air Flow Sensor George Saikalis, Shigeru Oho, and Feng Lin
    3rd IFAC Workshop preprints, Volume 1, March 2001
  • Self-Tuning of PID Controllers by Adaptive Interaction
    Feng Lin, Robert D. Brandt, and Geroge Saikalis
    2000 American Control Conference, June 2000
  • A Study on Fuel Spray Pattern Control of Fuel Injector of Gasoline Direct Injection Engines
    A. Miyajima
    Paper #2000-01-1045
  • Development of a High Pressure Gas Flow Sensing Device
    George Saikalis and Teruo Yamauchi
    SAE Paper #950530
  • Study on Hot Wire Characteristics Under High Pressure Gaseous Operation
    George Saikalis and Masatoshi Sugiura
    SAE Paper #940626
  • Hot Wire Mass Gas Flow Sensing Device
    Masatoshi Sugiura, Isao Okazaki, and George Saikalis
    SAE Paper #940625
  • Adaptive Neural Network Control by Adaptive Interaction
    George Saikalis and Feng Lin
    ACC 1999

Patents

  • Patent no. 6,279,549: Heater for a cold start fuel injector
    Inventors: Hunt, Frank W. & Oho, Shigeru
  • Patent no. 6,274,951: EMI Energy Absorber
    Inventors: Saikalis, George & Oho, Shigeru
  • Patent no. 6,109,247: Heater for a cold start fuel injector
    Inventor: Hunt, Frank W.
  • Patent no. 5,894,832: Cold start engine control apparatus and method
    Inventors: Nogi, Toshiharu & Hunt, Frank W.
  • Patent no. 5,806,490: Fuel control system for a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine with improved fuel metering and mixing means
    Inventors: Nogi, Toshiharu & Bruetsch, Robert I.
  • Patent no. 5,720,266: Control system for a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine utilizing PID gain scheduling parameters
    Inventors: Nogi, Toshiharu & Saikalis, George
  • Patent no. 5,692,478: Fuel control system for a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine with improved fuel metering and mixing means
    Inventors: Nogi, Toshiharu & Bruetsch, Robert I.
  • Patent no. 5,598,826: Cold start fuel control system for an internal combustion engine
    Inventors: Hunt, Frank W. & Nogi, Toshiharu
  • Patent no. 5,595,163: Apparatus and method for controlling the fuel supply of a gas-fueled engine
    Inventors: Nogi, Toshiharu; Bruetsch, Robert I. & Saikalis, George
  • Patent no. 5,544,079: Smart mass gas flow sensor
    Inventor: Saikalis, George
  • Patent no. 5,529,035: Cold start fuel injector with heater
    Inventors: Hunt, Frank W. & Nogi, Toshiharu
  • Patent no. 5,482,023: Cold start fuel control system
    Inventors: Hunt, Frank W. & Nogi, Toshiharu
  • Patent no. 5,465,701: Internal Combustion fuel control system
    Inventor: Hunt, Frank W.
  • Patent no. 5,426,934:Engine and emission monitoring and control system utilizing gas sensors
    Inventors: Hunt, Frank W.; Kaneyasu, Masayoshi & Saikalis, George
  • Patent no. 5,409,169: Air-assist fuel injection system
    Inventors: Saikalis, George; Yamauchi, Teruo & Byers, Robert W.
  • Patent no. 5,355,855: Integrated feed forward air/fuel ratio sensor for gaseous fuel engines
    Inventor: Saikalis, George
  • Patent no. 5,353,765: Fuel management system for a gaseous fuel internal combustion engine
    Inventors: Saikalis, George & Sugiura, Masatoshi
  • Patent no. 5,234,569: Air/fuel ratio sensor for an internal combustion engine
    Inventor: Hunt, Frank W.
  • Patent no. 5,148,788: Air-assist fuel injection system
    Inventors: Saikalis, George; Yamauchi, Teruo & Byers, Robert W.

Other patents pending